• Prior to other membrane treatment they are used for the pretreatment of surface water, seawater and municipal effluent.
  • They are useful for producing
      • Drinking water
      • Irrigation
      • Industrial water reuse and makeup water


  • Sterile filtration of drinking  and beverage water
  • Treatment of surface water
  • Recovery of filter backflushing water
  • Separation of oil/water emulsions
  • Recovery of electrodeposition paint
  • Removal of metal hydroxides in wastewater treatment
  • Separation of biomass in biotechnology
  • Wastewater treatment and re-use
  • Membrane bioreactors


  • Recovering LiOH while treating battery waste
  • Removes degreasing agents from water
  • Removes hardness in water
  • Natural organic matter is removed
  • Pesticide removal · Heavy metals like (As, Pb), Fe, Cu, Zn and silica is removed


  • Desalination of sea and brackish water.
  • Desalination of ground water.
  • In industries where the concentration of a wet process stream is needed. The popular industries in which they are used are:
    • Electronic parts manufacturing
    • Specialty foods
    • Pharmaceuticals
  • For purifying water to be used in green house irrigation